Unfinished Tales: The Second Age: A Description of the Island of Númenor
The account of the Island of Númenor that here follows is derived from descriptions
and simple maps that were long preserved in the archives of the Kings of Gondor. These represent
indeed but a small part of all that was once written, for many natural histories and geographies
were composed by learned men in Númenor; but these, like nearly all else of the arts and
science of Númenor at its high tide, disappeared in the Downfall.
Even such documents as were preserved in Gondor, or in Imladris (where in the care of Elrond
were deposited the surviving treasures of the Northern Númenórean kings) suffered
from loss and destruction by neglect. For though the survivors in Middle-earth 'yearned', as
they said, for Akallabêth, the Downfallen, and never even after long ages ceased to regard
themselves as in a measure exiles, when it became clear that the Land of the Gift was taken away
and that Númenor had disappeared for ever, all but a few regarded study of what was left
of its history as vain, breeding only useless regret. The story of Ar-Pharazôn and his
impious armada was all that remained generally known in later ages.
The land of Númenor resembled in outline a five-pointed star, or pentangle, with a
central portion some two hundred and fifty miles across, north and south, and east and west,
from which extended five large peninsular promontories. These promontories were regarded as
separate regions, and they were named Forostar (Northlands), Andustar (Westlands), Hyarnustar
(Southwestlands), Hyarrostar (Southeastlands), and Orrostar (Eastlands). The central portion was
called Mittalmar (Inlands), and it had no coast, except the land about Rómenna and the
head of its firth. A small part of the Mittalmar was, however, separated from the rest, and
called Arandor, the Kingland. In Arandor were the haven of Rómenna, the Meneltarma, and
Armenelos, the City of the Kings; and it was at all times the most populous region of
The Mittalmar was raised above the promontories (not reckoning the height of their mountains
and hills); it was a region of grasslands and low downs, and few trees grew there. Near to the
centre of the Mittalmar stood the tall mountain called Meneltarma, Pillar of the Heavens, sacred
to the worship of Eru Ilúvatar. Though the lower slopes of the mountain were gentle and
grass-covered, it grew ever steeper, and towards the summit it could not be scaled; but a
winding spiral road was made upon it, beginning at its foot upon the south, and ending below the
lip of the summit upon the north. For the summit was somewhat flattened and depressed, and could
contain a great multitude; but it remained untouched by hands throughout the history of
Númenor. No building, no raised altar, not even a pile of undressed stones, ever stood
there; and no other likeness of a temple did the Numenóreans possess in all the days of
their grace, until the coming of Sauron. There no tool or weapon had ever been borne; and there
none might speak any word, save the King only. Thrice only in each year the King spoke, offering
prayer for the coming year at the Erukyermë in the first days of spring, praise of
Eru Ilúvatar at the Erulaitalë in midsummer, and thanksgiving to him at the
Eruhantalë at the end of autumn. At these times the King ascended the mountain on
foot followed by a great concourse of the people, clad in white and garlanded, but silent. At
other times the people were free to climb to the summit alone or in company; but it is said that
the silence was so great that even a stranger ignorant of Númenor and all its history, if
he were transported thither, would not have dared to speak aloud. No bird ever came there, save
only eagles. If anyone approached the summit, at once three eagles would appear and alight upon
three rocks near to the western edge; but at times of the Three Prayers they did not descend,
remaining in the sky and hovering above the people. They were called the Witnesses of
Manwë, and they were believed to be sent by him from Aman to keep watch upon the Holy
Mountain and upon all the land.
The base of the Meneltarma sloped gently into the surrounding plain, but it extended, after
the fashion of roots, five long low ridges outwards in the direction of the five promontories of
the land; and these were called Tarmasundar, the Roots of the Pillar. Along the crest of the
south-western ridge the climbing road approached the mountain; and between this ridge and that on
the south-east the land went down into a shallow valley. That was named Noirinan, the Valley of
the Tombs; for at its head chambers were cut in the rock at the base of the mountain, in which
were the tombs of the Kings and Queens of Númenor.
But for the most part the Mittalmar was a region of pastures. In the south-west there were
rolling downs of grass; and there, in the Emerië, was the chief region of the Shepherds.
The Forostar was the least fertile part; stony, with few trees, save that on the westward
slopes of the high heather-covered moors there were woods of fir and larch. Towards the North
Cape the land rose to rocky heights, and there great Sorontil rose sheer from the sea in
tremendous cliffs. Here was the abode of many eagles; and in this region Tar-Meneldur Elentirmo
built a tower, from which he could observe the motion of the stars.
The Andustar was also rocky in its northern parts, with high firwoods looking out upon the
sea. Three small bays it had, facing west, cut back into the highlands; but here the cliffs were
in many places not at the sea's edge, and there was a shelving land at their feet. The northmost
of these was called the Bay of Andúnië, for there was the great haven of
Andúnië (Sunset), with its town beside the shore and many other dwellings climbing
up the steep slopes behind. But much of the southerly part of the Andustar was fertile, and
there also were great woods, of birch and beech upon the upper ground, and in the lower vales of
oaks and elms. Between the promontories of the Andustar and the Hyarnustar was the great Bay
that was called Eldanna, because it faced towards Eressëa;and the lands about it, being
sheltered from the north and open to the western seas, were warm, and the most rain fell there.
At the centre of the Bay of Eldanna was the most beautiful of all the havens of Númenor,
Eldalondë the Green; and hither in the earlier days the swift white ships of the Eldar of
Eressëa came most often.
All about that place, up the seaward slopes and far into the land, grew the evergreen and
fragrant trees that they brought out of the West, and so throve there that the Eldar said that
almost it was fair as a haven in Eressëa. They were the greatest delight in Númenor,
and they were remembered in many songs long after they had perished for ever, for few ever
flowered east of the Land of Gift: oiolarë and lairelossë,
nessamelda, vardarianna, taniquelassë and yavannamirë
with its globed and scarlet fruits. Flower, leaf and rind of those trees exuded sweet scents,
and all that country was full of blended fragrance; therefore it was called Nísimaldar,
the Fragrant Trees. Many of them were planted and grew, though far less abundant, in other
regions of Númenor; but only here grew the mighty golden tree malinornë,
reaching after five centuries a height scarce less that it achieved in Eressëa itself. Its
bark was silver and smooth, and its boughs somewhat upswept after the manner of the beech; but
it never grew save with a single trunk. Its leaves, like those of the beech but greater, were
pale green above and beneath were silver, glistering in the sun;,in the autumn they did not
fall, but turned to pale gold. In the spring it bore golden blossom in clusters like a cherry,
which bloomed on during the summer; and as soon as the flowers opened the leaves fell, so that
through spring and summer a grove of malinorni was carpeted and roofed with gold, but
its pillars were of grey silver . Its fruit was a nut with a
silver shale; and some were given as a gift by Tar-Aldarion, the sixth King of Númenor,
to King Gil-galad of Lindon. They did not take root in that land; but Gil-galad gave some to his
kinswoman Galadriel, and under her power they grew and flourished in the garded land of
Lothlórien beside the river Anduin, until the High Elves at last left Middle-earth; but
they did not reach the height or girth of the great grooves of Númenor.
The river Nunduinë flowed into the sea at Eldalondë, and on its way made the
little lake of Nísinen, that was so named from the abundance of sweet-smelling shrubs and
flowers that grew upon its banks.
The Hyarnustar was in its western part a mountainous region, with great cliffs on the
western and southern coasts; but eastwards were great vineyards in a warm and fertile land. The
promontories of the Hyarnustar and the Hyarrostar were splayed wide apart, and on those long
shores sea and land came gently together, as nowhere else in Númenor. Here flowed down
Siril, the chief river of the land (for all others, save the Nunduinë in the west, were
short and swift torrents hurrying to the sea), that rose in springs under the Meneltarma, in the
valley of Noirinan, and running through the Mittalmar southwards became in its lower course a
slow and winding stream. It issued at last into the sea amid wide marshes and reedy flats, and
its many small mouths found their changing paths through great grey sands; for many miles on
either side were wide white beaches and grey shingles, and here the fisherfolk mostly dwelt, in
villages upon the hards among the marshes and meres, of which the chief was Nindamos.
In the Hyarrostar grew an abundance of trees of many kinds, and among them the
laurinquë in which the people delighted for its flowers, for it had no other use.
This name they gave it because of its long-hanging clusters of yellow flowers; and some who had
heard from the Eldar of Laurelin, the Golden Tree of Valinor, believed that it came from that
great Tree, being brought in seed thither by the Eldar; but it was not so. From the days of
Tar-Aldarion there were great plantations in the Hyarrostar to furnish timber for ship-building.
The Orrostar was a cooler land, but it was protected from the cold north-east winds by
highlands that rose towards the end of the promontory; and in the inner regions of the Orrostar
much grain was grown, especially in those parts near to the border of Arandor.
The whole land of Númenor was so posed as if it had been thrust upward out of the sea,
but tilted southward and a little eastward; and save upon the south the land in nearly all places
fell towards the sea in steep cliffs. In Númenor birds that dwell near the sea, and swim
or dive in it, abode in multitudes beyond reckoning. The mariners said that were they blind, they
still would know that their ship was drawing near to Númenor because of the great clamour
of the birds of the shore; and when any ship approached the land seabirds in great flocks would
arise and fly above it in welcome and gladness, for they were never killed or molested by intent.
Some would accompany ships on their voyages, even those that went to Middle-earth. Likewise in
the lands the birds of Númenor were beyond count, from the kirinki that were no
bigger than wrens, but all scarlet, with piping voices on the edge of human hearing, to the great
eagles that were held sacred to Manwë, and never afflicted, until the days of evil and the
hatred of the Valar began. For two thousand years, from the days of Elros Tar-Minyatur until the
time of Tar-Ancalimon son of Tar-Atanamir, there was an eyrie in the summit of the tower of the
King's palace in Armenelos; and there one pair ever dwelt and lived on the bounty of the King.
In Númenor all journeyed from place to place on horseback; for in riding the
Númenóreans, both men and women, took delight, and all the people of the land
loved horses, treating them honourably and housing them nobly. They were trained to hear and
answer calls from a great distance, and it is said in old tales that there was great love between
men and women and their favourite steeds they could be summoned at need by thought alone.
Therefore the roads of Númenor were for the most part unpaved, made and tended for riding,
since coaches and carriages were little used in the earlier centuries, and heavy cargoes were
borne by sea. The chief and most ancient road, suitable for wheels, ran from the greatest port,
Rómenna in the east, to the royal city of Armenelos, and thence on to the Valley of the
Tombs and the Meneltarma; and this road was early extended to Ondosto within the borders of the
Forostar, and thence to Andúnië in the west. Along it passed wains bearing stone from
the Northlands that was most esteemed for building, and timber in which the Westlands were rich.
The Edain brought with them to Númenor the knowledge of many crafts, and many
craftsmen who had learned from the Eldar, besides preserving lore and traditions of their own.
But they could bring with them few materials, save for the tools of their crafts; and for long
all metals in Númenor were precious metals. They brought with them many treasures of gold
and silver, and gems also; but they did not find these things in Númenor. They loved them
for their beauty, and it was this love that first aroused in them cupidity, in later days when
they fell under the Shadow and became proud and unjust in their dealings with lesser folks of
Middle-earth. Of the Elves of Eressëa in the days of their friendship they had at times
gifts of gold and silver and jewels; but such things were rare and prized in all the earlier
centuries, until the power of the Kings was spread to the coasts in the East.
Some metals they found in Númenor, and as their cunning in mining and in smelting
and smithying swiftly grew things of iron and copper became common. Among the wrights of the
Edain were weaponsmiths, and they had with the teaching of the Noldor acquired great skill in
the forging of swords, of axe-blades, and of spearheads and knives. Swords the Guild of
Weaponsmiths still made, for the preservation of the craft, thought most of their labour was
spent on the fashioning of tools for the uses of peace. The King and most of the great
chieftains possessed swords as heirlooms of their fathers; and
at times they would still give a sword as a gift to their heirs. A new sword was made for the
King's Heir to be given to him on the day on which his title was conferred. But no man wore a
sword in Númenor, and for long years few indeed were the weapons of warlike intent that
were made in the land. Axes and spears and bow they had, and shooting with bows on foot and on
horseback was a chief sport and pastime of the Númenóreans. In later days, in the
wars upon Middle-earth, it was the bows of the Númenóreans that were most greatly
feared. 'The Men of the Sea', it was said, 'send before them a great cloud, as a rain turned to
serpents, or a black hail tipped with steel'; and in those days the great cohorts of the King's
Archers used bows made of hollow steel, with black-feathered arrows a full ell long from point
1: This description of the mallorn is much like that given by Legolas to
his companions as they approached Lothlórien (The Fellowship of the Ring II 6).
2: The King's sword was indeed Aranrúth, the sword of Elu Thingol
of Doriath in Beleriand, that had descended to Elros from Elwing his mother. Other heirlooms
there were beside: the Ring of Barahir; the great Axe of Tuor, father of Eärendil; and the
bow of Bregor of the House of Bëor. Only the Ring of Barahir father of Beren One-hand
survived the Downfall; for it was given by Tar-Elendil to his daughter Silmarien and was
preserved in the House of the Lords of Andúnië, of whom the last was Elendil the
Faithful who fled from the wrack of Númenor to Middle-earth. [Author's note.] - The story
of the Ring of Barahir is told in The Silmarillion, Chapter 19, and its later history
in The Lord of the Rings Appendix A (I, iii and v). Of 'the great Axe of Tuor' there is
no mention in The Silmarillion, but it is named and described in the original 'Fall of
Gondolin' (1916-17), where it is said that in Gondolin Tuor carried an axe rather than a sword,
and that he named it in the speech of the people of Gondolin Dramborleg. In a list of
names accompanying the tale Dramborleg is translated 'Thudder-sharp': 'the axe of Tuor
that smote both a heavily dint as of a club and cleft as a sword'.[<-]
Songs and tales from J.R.R. Tolkien's work.
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