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A History and Complete Chronology of Númenor

Part 2: Complete Chronology of Númenor

by Stephen Geard

In the table below:
  • Events on, or related to, Númenor are in blue.
  • Events exclusive to Middle-earth are in green.

The names of the Kings are highlighted indicating the year in which their reign commenced.
Years of the Second Age...
1 Foundation of Lindon.
32 The Edain reach Númenor, Armenelos appears to have already been constructed.[1]
32 ELROS TAR-MINYATUR, b. 58 yrs before the Second Age began, d. 442.
The Adûnaic form of the name Elros was Gimilizôr.[2]
61 Birth of Vardamir Nólimon, son (eldest child) of Elros.
There followed a daughter, Tindómiel, and two more sons, Manwendil and Atanalcar.
192 Birth of Tar-Amandil, son (eldest child) of Vardamir.
203 Birth of Vardilmë, daughter of Vardamir.
213 Birth of Aulendil, son of Vardamir.
222 Birth of Nolondil, son of Vardamir.
350 Birth of Tar-Elendil, son (eldest child) of Tar-Amandil.
361 Birth of Eärendur, son of Tar-Amandil.
371 Birth of Yávien, daughter of Nolondil the son of Vardamir.
377 Birth of Mairen, daughter of Tar-Amandil.
382 Birth of Oromendil, son of Nolondil the son of Vardamir.
395 Birth of Axantur, son of Nolondil the son of Vardamir.
442 VARDAMIR NÓLIMON, b. 61, surrendered Sceptre immediately, d. 471.
Deemed to have reigned for one year.
442 TAR-AMANDIL, b. 192, surrendered Sceptre 590, d. 603.
The Adûnaic form of his name was probably Ar-Aphanuzîr.[3]
c. 500 Sauron begins to stir in Middle-earth.
512 Birth of Caliondo, son of Eärendur the son of Tar-Amandil.
521 Birth of Silmariën, daughter (eldest child) of Tar-Elendil.
She married Elatan of Andúnië, their son Valandil became the first Lord of Andúnië.
532 Birth of Isilmë, daughter of Tar-Elendil.
543 Birth of Írimon (Tar-Meneldur), son (third child) of Tar-Elendil.
551 Birth of Lindissë, daughter of Axantur the grandson of Vardamir.
562 Birth of Ardamir, son of Axantur the grandson of Vardamir.
575 Birth of Cemendur, son of Axantur the grandson of Vardamir.
590 TAR-ELENDIL (a.k.a. Parmaitë), b. 350, surrendered Sceptre 740, d. 751.
The Adûnaic form of his name was probably Ar-Nimruzîr.[4]
600 Vëantur, Captain of the King's Ships, brings his ship Entulessë to Mithlond - the first Númenórean to sail to Middle-earth.
630 Birth of Valandil, first Lord of Andúnië.
670 Birth of Malantur, son of Caliondo the grandson of Tar-Amandil.
700 Birth of Anardil (Tar-Aldarion), son (eldest child) of Tar-Meneldur.
Birth of Írildë, daughter of Cemendur the great-grandson of Vardamir.
The Noldor, led by Galadriel and Celeborn, settle in Eregion.
711 Birth of Hallatan of Hyarstorni, son of Cemendur the great-grandson of Vardamir.
712 Birth of Ailinel, daughter of Tar-Meneldur
725 First voyage of Anardil (Tar-Aldarion) to Middle-earth, returned 727
729 Birth of Almiel, daughter of Tar-Meneldur
740 TAR-MENELDUR, b. 543, surrendered Sceptre 883, d. 942.
His wife, Almarian, was the daughter of Vëantur, Captain of the King's Ships under Tar-Elendil.
750 Guild of Venturers founded in Númenor.
The Noldor begin building Ost-in-Edhil, the chief city of Eregion.
771 Birth of Erendis, wife of Tar-Aldarion.
840 Birth of Nessanië, daughter of Hallatan of Hyarastorni.
852 Birth of Hallacar, husband of Tar-Ancalimë, son of Hallatan of Hyarastorni.
870 Marriage of Aldarion and Erendis.
873 Birth of Tar-Ancalimë, daughter (only child) of Tar-Aldarion.
882 Aldarion and Erendis separate.
883 TAR-ALDARION, b. 700, surrendered Sceptre 1075, d. 1098.
c. 1000 Sauron begins building the Barad-dûr.
1003 Birth of Tar-Anárion, son (only child) of Tar-Ancalimë.
1075 TAR-ANCALIMË, first Ruling Queen, b. 873, surrendered Sceptre 1280, d. 1285.
1174 Birth of Tar-Súrion, son (third child) of Tar-Anárion.
1200 Sauron seduces the smiths of Eregion.
c. 1200 Númenóreans begin to build permanent havens on the coasts of Middle-earth.
1211 Death of Hallacar, husband of Tar-Ancalimë.
1280 TAR-ANÁRION, b. 1003, surrendered Sceptre 1394, d. 1404.
1320 Birth of Tar-Telperien, daughter (eldest child) of Tar-Súrion.
There was also a son Isilmo.
c. 1375 At the instigation of Sauron, the Gwaith-i-Mírdain revolt against the leadership of Galadriel and Celeborn and seize power in Eregion. Galadriel and Celeborn depart Ost-in-Edhil and pass through Moria to Lórien. Celebrimbor becomes Lord of Eregion.[5]
1394 TAR-SÚRION, b. 1174, surrendered Sceptre 1556, d. 1574
He had two older sisters, but they refused the Sceptre.
1474 Birth of Tar-Minastir, son of Isilmo the brother of Tar-Telperien.
c. 1500 The Gwaith-i-Mírdain begin forging the Rings of Power, Sauron departs Eregion.
1556 TAR-TELPERIEN, second Ruling Queen, b. 1320, surrendered Sceptre 1691, d. 1691.[6]
She never married, thus the Sceptre passed to her nephew Tar-Minastir.
c. 1590 Celebrimbor forges the Three Rings.
c. 1600 Sauron forges the One Ring and places it on his finger. The Noldor of Eregion perceive his plans and tear the Rings of Power from their fingers and hide them.
Sauron completes the Barad-dûr.
c. 1601 Celebrimbor gathers up the Three Rings and travels to Lórien to seek the advice of Galadriel. She counsels that the Rings should be dispersed and hidden far from Eregion, where Sauron believes them to be. Celebrimbor gives Nenya (the White Ring) to her, he then travels to Lindon and delivers Vilya (the Blue Ring) and Narya (the Red Ring) to Gil-galad.[7]
1634 Birth of Tar-Ciryatan, son of Tar-Minastir.
1691 TAR-MINASTIR, b. 1474, surrendered Sceptre 1869, d. 1873
1695-1701 The War of the Elves and Sauron:
Seeking to take the Rings of Power, Sauron invades Eriador from Calenardhon (1695). As the vanguard of Sauron's army approaches Eregion, Celeborn leads a sortie out of Ost-in-Edhil and for a while holds it back. But when Sauron's main host arrives Celeborn is overrun and retreats. However, he is cut off from returning to Eregion. So he retreats north and meets up with an army sent from Lindon by Gil-galad and commanded by Elrond.[8] Eregion is overrun, Ost-in-Edhil falls (1697). Sauron gains the Nine Rings and at least six of the Seven.[9] Celebrimbor is captured but refuses to reveal the location of the Three, Sauron nevertheless guesses their whereabouts. He marches north-west and meets Elrond and Celeborn. The latter would have been overwhelmed except Sauron is attacked in the rear by a force issuing from Moria (this was a force of Dwarves accompanied by Elves of Lórien led by Amroth).[10] Sauron turns and drives the Dwarves back into Moria, but the Gates are shut and he can not enter. Allowed time to move, Elrond retreats north to Imladris. Sauron advances north-west to assail Lindon, but is forced to leave a strong detachment to beseige Elrond in Imladris. Sauron overruns Eriador, and reaches the River Lhûn (1699).
Tar-Minastir sends a navy, commanded by one Ciryatur, to Lindon (1700). It arrives just in time to prevent Lindon from being overrun. Sauron is heavily defeated and driven back. He retreats to Sarn Ford (the crossing on the Baranduin) which he appears to attempt to hold, but he is forced back "after great slaughter." Sauron withdraws to the line of the Gwathló, he is strengthened by forces from Tharbard, but finds a Númenórean army at his rear (for Ciryatur had put a strong force ashore at Vinyalondë). In the Battle of the Gwathló Sauron is routed utterly and he himself only narrowly escapes. He retreats with a small force, but is assailed again in eastern Calenardhon.[11] With no more than a bodyguard he retreats to Mordor (1701). The army besieging Imladris is caught between Gil-galad and Elrond and completely destroyed.
c. 1710 Galadriel travels to Imladris in search of Celeborn, whilst she is there the first Council is held.
1800 Birth of Tar-Atanamir, son of Tar-Ciryatan.
c. 1800 Shadow falls on Númenor, they begin to establish dominion on the coasts of Middle-earth.
Around this time, Galadriel and Celeborn may have moved to Dol Amroth.
1869 TAR-CIRYATAN (Adûnaic: Ar-Balkumagân), b. 1634, surrendered Sceptre 2029, d. 2035.
1986 Birth of Tar-Ancalimon, son of Tar-Atanamir.
2029 TAR-ATANAMIR THE GREAT, b. 1800, did not surrender Sceptre, d. 2221.
2136 Birth of Tar-Telemmaitë, son of Tar-Ancalimon.
2221 TAR-ANCALIMON, b. 1986, d. 2386.
c. 2250 The Nazgûl first appear.[12]
c. 2250 Rebellion and division of the Númenóreans begins.
2277 Birth of Tar-Vanimeldë, daughter of Tar-Telemmaitë.
2280 Umbar strengthenend.
2286 Birth of Herucalmo, husband of Tar-Vanimeldë.
2350 Pelargir built.
2386 TAR-TELEMMAITË, b. 2136, d. 2526.
2406 Birth of Tar-Alcarin, son of Tar-Vanimeldë.
2516 Birth of Tar-Calmacil, son of Tar-Alcarin.
2526 TAR-VANIMELDË, third Ruling Queen, b. 2277, d. 2637
She gave little heed to ruling. Her husband, Herucalmo, wielded the power.
2618 Birth of Tar-Ardamin, son of Tar-Calmacil.
2637 Herucalmo withheld the Sceptre from his son, taking the name Tar-Anducal. He ruled until his death in 2657.
2657 TAR-ALCARIN, b. 2406, d. 2737
Legitimate ruler since 2637.
2709 Birth of Ar-Adûnakhôr, son of Tar-Ardamin.
2737 TAR-CALMACIL (Adûnaic: Ar-Belzager), b. 2516, d. 2825.
The first King whose name was commonly spoken in Adûnaic.
2789 Birth of Ar-Zimrathon, son of Ar-Adûnakhôr.
2825 TAR-ARDAMIN (Adûnaic: Ar-Abattârik), b. 2618, d. 2899.
2876 Birth of Ar-Sakalthôr, son of Ar-Zimrathon.
2899 AR-ADÛNAKHÔR (Tar-Herunúmen), b. 2709, d. 2962.
The first King to take the Sceptre with a title in Adûnaic, although for superstitious reasons a Quenya name was still entered into the Scrolls.
c. 2900 Teaching of the Elven tongues forbidden.
2960 Birth of Ar-Gimilzôr, son of Ar-Sakalthôr.
2962 AR-ZIMRATHON (Tar-Hostamir), b. 2798, d. 3033.
3033 AR-SAKALTHÔR (Tar-Falassion), b. 2876, d. 3102.
3035 Birth of Inziladûn (Tar-Palantir), son (eldest child) of Ar-Gimilzôr.
3044 Birth of Gimikhâd, second son of Ar-Gimilzôr.
3102 AR-GIMILZÔR (Tar-Telemnar), b. 2960, d. 3177.
His wife, Inzilbêth, was a daughter of Lindórië the sister of Eärendur, fifteenth Lord of Andúnië.
c. 3110 Use of the Elven tongues completely forbidden, the Eldar no longer permitted to come to Númenor.
3117 Birth of Míriel, daughter (only child) of Tar-Palantir.
3118 Birth of Pharazôn, son of Gimilkhâd.
3119 Birth of Elendil (Adûnaic: Nimruzîr), founding High King of Arnor and Gondor, son (only child) of Amandil, eighteenth Lord of Andúnië
3177 TAR-PALANTIR (Adûnaic: Ar-Inziladûn), b. 3035, d. 3255
Gimilkhâd opposed Tar-Palantir as openly as he dared.
The Lord of Andúnië during the reign of Tar-Palantir was Númendil, the seventeenth Lord.
3209 Birth of Isildur, founding Co-Regent of Gondor, second King of Arnor, son (eldest child) of Elendil.
The Adûnaic form of his name may have been Nîlubâr.[13]
3219 Birth of Anárion, founding Co-Regent of Gondor, second son of Elendil.
3243 Death of Gimilkhâd.
3255 AR-PHARAZÔN THE GOLDEN (Tar-Calion), b. 3118, d. 3319
Upon the death of Tar-Palantir, his daughter, Míriel was taken to wife by Pharazôn, the son of Gimilkhâd, against her will, and against the law of Númenor. Pharazôn then seized the Sceptre, taking the name Ar-Pharazôn, and giving Míriel the name Ar-Zimraphel.
The Lord of Andúnië during the reign of Ar-Pharazôn was Amandil (Adûnaic: Aphanuzîr), the eighteenth (and last) Lord.
3261 Ar-Pharazôn lands in Umbar.
3262 Sauron is taken as a prisoner to Númenor.
3299 Birth of Elendur, son (eldest child) of Isildur.
3310 Ar-Pharazôn begins building his fleet to assail Valinor.
3318 Birth of Meneldil, second King of Gondor, son (fourth and youngest child) of Anárion.
3319 Downfall of Númenor: Ar-Pharazôn assails Valinor.
The Changing of the World. The Valar lay down their guardianship of the World and call on Ilúvatar: He changes the shape of the World, removing Valinor off the Circle of the World, and drowning Númenor beneath the Sea.
Elendil and his sons, Isildur and Anárion, escape the destruction of Númenor, and found the Kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor in Middle-earth.

For events following those listed above, see my Complete Chronology of Arnor and Gondor


  1. According to The Tale of the Years (LotR App.B) the Edain reached Númenor in SA 32, yet according to The Line of Elros (UT 218) Elros ascended the throne in the City of Armenelos that same year. Perhaps the City was built for the Edain, prior to their arrival, as a gift, by the Eldar.
  2. Some may disagree. CJRT wrote, "in the later development of the Númenórean legend the name (Ar)-Gimilzôr is given to the twenty-third king..." (HoMe 9:381). Possibly indicating Tolkien abandoned Gimilzôr as the Adûnaic name for Elros. But consider: Elros means "star-foam" and Lowdham's "Report on the Adunaic Language" lists gimil(i) as the Adûnaic for "star" (HoMe 9:431), so an equation of the words Elros and Gimilzôr is still likely.
    If so, then why isn't Tar-Elros the Quenya name of Ar-Gimilzôr? We should note however that the Quenya and Adûnaic names of the Kings were not always equivalent in meaning. Inziladûn (Adûnaic: "flower of the west") does not translate Palantir (Quenya: "far-seer"). Nor does Pharazôn (Adûnaic: "golden") exactly translate Calion (Quenya: "son of light").
  3. Aphanuzîr was the Adûnaic name of Amandil (HoMe 9:389), so I guess Ar-Aphanuzîr translates Tar-Amandil.
  4. Nimruzîr was the Adûnaic name of Elendil (HoMe 9:389), so I guess Ar-Nimruzîr translates Tar-Elendil.
  5. The History of Galadriel and Celeborn actually states (UT 237) that Celeborn did not accompany Galadriel to Lórien, as he feared to enter Moria. Thus, "the remained behind in Eregion, disregarded by Celebrimbor." I think this highly unlikely. His subsequent leading of the sortie out of Ost-in-Edhil proves he was no coward, and even if he did not wish to enter Moria he could have crossed the mountains over the Caradhras Pass.
  6. I have cut 40 years off the reign of Tar-Telperien to solve the chronological problem encountered in The Line of Elros (see UT 226, note 9).
  7. At some stage, perhaps many years later, Gil-galad passed Narya onto Círdan the Shipwright.
  8. It is probable that Glorfindel was Elrond's deputy.
  9. Celebrimbor may have given one of the Seven Rings to King Durin III of Moria some years previous (see UT 238).
  10. Amorth was the son of Amdír, King of Lórien.
  11. I suspect Sauron found himself trapped in eastern Calenardhon. The Númenóreans were to the west of him (following his retreat), and he was assailed from the north-east by a force consisting of Dwarves from Moria and Elves from Lórien (and possibly even Ents from Fangorn Forest).
  12. The following dates, relating to the life of the Lord of the Nazgûl, have been supplied by fellow Tolkien fan. Apparently they were invented by a firm called Iron Crown Enterprises, who specialize in role playing games. Thus they are not genuine Tolkien.
    Normally I am fairly skeptical of attempts to invent extra historical data for Middle-earth. However, I can't think of any reason why the Lord of the Nazgûl could not have been the second son of Tar-Ciryatan and the dates do fit into the Second Age rather well.
    1820 Birth of Tindomul (Adûnaic: Murazor), later Lord of the Nazgûl, second son of Tar-Ciryatan
    1880 Murazor sails for Middle-earth
    1883 Sauron entices Murazor to Mordor
    1998 Sauron gives Murazor the chief of the Nine Rings, thus he becomes the first (and subsequently the Lord) of the Nazgûl.

  13. This is my own derivation. Isildur means "moon-lord", hence nîlu (Adûnaic: "moon") + bâr ("lord"). See HoMe 9:431,437.
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